Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Sonnet Form William Shakespeare - 6305 Words

Shakespeare’s Sonnets William Shakespeare The Sonnet Form A sonnet is a fourteen-line lyric poem, traditionally written in iambic pentameter—that is, in lines ten syllables long, with accents falling on every second syllable, as in: â€Å"Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?† The sonnet form first became popular during the Italian Renaissance, when the poet Petrarch published a sequence of love sonnets addressed to an idealized woman named Laura. Taking firm hold among Italian poets, the sonnet spread throughout Europe to England, where, after its initial Renaissance, â€Å"Petrarchan† incarnation faded, the form enjoyed a number of revivals and periods of renewed interest. In Elizabethan England—the era during which Shakespeare’s sonnets were†¦show more content†¦Past cure am I, now reason is past care, And frantic mad with evermore unrest, My thoughts and my discourse as madmen’s are, At random from the truth vainly expressed; For I have sworn thee fair and thought thee bright, Who art as black as hell, as dark as night. In many ways, Shakespeare’s use of the sonnet form is richer and more complex than this relatively simple division into parts might imply. Not only is his sequence largely occupied with subverting the traditional themes of love sonnets—the traditional love poems in praise of beauty and worth, for instance, are written to a man, while the love poems to a woman are almost all as bitter and negative as Sonnet 147—he also combines formal patterns with daring and innovation. Many of his sonnets in the sequence, for instance, impose the thematic pattern of a Petrarchan sonnet onto the formal pattern of a Shakespearean sonnet, so that while there are still three quatrains and a couplet, the first two quatrains might ask a single question, which the third quatrain and the couplet will answer. As you read through Shakespeare’s sequence, think about the ways Shakespeare’s themes are affected by and tailored to the sonnet form. Be especially alert to complexit ies such as the juxtaposition of Petrarchan and Shakespearean patterns. How might such a juxtaposition combination deepen and enrich Shakespeare’sShow MoreRelatedLord Byron And William Shakespeare966 Words   |  4 Pages Since the beginning of time, human beings have found a variety of ways to illustrate their affections for one another. An intriguing form to present an individual’s ideal thoughts across is the form of poetry, for it displays a deep and mysterious meaning behind the connotation of the words used. Poetry allows writers to express themselves through the act of writing with the usage of a few words. However, it is sometimes difficult for a reader to comprehend what the poem is trying to imply, butRead MoreComparing And Contrasting Two Sonnets1141 Words   |  5 Pages Comparing and Contrasting Two Sonnets ‘Sonnet 116’ by William Shakespeare and ‘What Lips My Lips Have Kissed, And Where, And Why† by Edna St. Vincent Millay are both sonnets that discuss companionship and a glimpse of each poet’s experiences. In ‘Sonnet 116’, Shakespeare illustrates how capability is weakened by its metaphysical stereotype and ideals such as, love, while on the contrary, in ‘What Lips My Lips Have Kissed, And Where, And Why† Millay feeds on the chaos between the idealRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Sonnet 116981 Words   |  4 PagesWilliam Shakespeare was born in April of 1564. His exact date of birth is unknown. By the time he passed away on April 23, 1616 he was regarded worldwide as the greatest writer in the English language. He was a playwright, poet, and actor. Unfortunately, he passed away at an early age of fifty-two and the world will never know what other great works he would have produced. â€Å"To the world, he left a last ing legacy in the form of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, and two narrative poems† (â€Å"The Life of WilliamRead MoreAnalyzing Sonnet 18 961 Words   |  4 Pagesyou still probably know this famous poem. Sonnet 18 by William Shakespeare is one of the most well-known poems of all time. Time and time again this piece of art has influenced contemporary pieces. Some examples of this would be; the song â€Å"Sonnet 18† by Pink Floyd, a novel titled The Darling Buds of May by H E Bates, and a famous essay â€Å"Rough Winds Do Shake† written by Maeve Landman. Now this doesn’t not include the endless, countless list of times when Sonnet 18 has been quoted throughout history,Read MoreShakespearen Sonnets Essay883 Words   |  4 PagesShakespearen Sonnets William Shakespeare is one of the most famous authors of all times. His works span a wide range of formats, styles, and themes. While best known for plays, such as the tragedy Romeo and Juliet, he was also a composer of poetry. To many people, these poems constitute the greatest of Shakespeares accomplishments. They were often highly emotional in nature, and dealt with timeless ideas such as beauty, love, and death. Each one of the poems is unique. Yet for allRead MoreSonnet Analysis Essay1249 Words   |  5 Pageschocolates and teddy bears or maybe a romantic sonnet? The clichà © of these superficial representations have been around for years and continue to plague our society today. But are the traditional roses on Valentine’s Day and anniversaries really a good signification of true love or would you prefer a unique and realistic approach? Good morning/ good afternoon Mr. Day and classmates, today I will be comparing two sonnets. These sonnets deal with the issue of ideal and unconventionalRead MoreLord Byron And William Shakespeare843 Words   |  4 PagesSince the beginning of time human beings has found a variety of ways to illustrate their affections to one another. An intriguing form to present an individual’s ideal thoughts across is the form of poetry, for it displays a deep and mysterious meaning behind the connotation of the words used. Poetry allows a writer to express themselves through the act of writing with the usage of a few words. However, it is sometimes difficult for a reader to comprehend what the poem is trying to imply, but thatRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Sonnet 73902 Words   |  4 Pages William Shakespeare â€Å"That time of year thou mayst in me behold† (Sonnet 73) The sonnet, originating in Italy, was formed by Francesco Petrarch. The Petrarchan sonnet, originally consisting of two quatrains and a couplet, was soon brought to England where William Shakespeare took an interest in this unknown form of poetry. Shakespeare revised the sonnet so it consisted of three quatrains with the rhyming scheme of â€Å"abab cdcd efef† and a rhyming couplet at the end. This revised sonnet was thenRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser771 Words   |  4 Pagesworks of William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser it is clear that some similarities are apparent, however the two poets encompass different writing styles, as well as different topics that relate to each other in their own unique ways. In Shakespeare’s â€Å"Sonnet 18† and Spenser’s â€Å"Sonnet 75†, both poets speak of love in terms of feelings and actions by using different expressive views, allowing the similar topics to contain clear distinctions. Although Edmund Spenser’s â€Å"Sonnet 75† and William Shakespeare’sRead MoreSonnet 71 Analysis Essay1281 Words   |  6 Pages2011 William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 71 William Shakespeare is one of the most well-known writers of all time. His sonnets are timeless and his plays are performed again and again. Much of his history is known, but can also be considered a little cloudy. He seemed to be a sarcastic man not necessarily loved by all. I enjoy his plays, but personally love his sonnets best of all. Knowing the controversy surrounding his life, â€Å"Sonnet 71† offers a slight insight into all of that. â€Å"Sonnet 71† is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Have You Ever Thought About That Economic Is Effect In

Have you ever thought about that Economic is effect in our daily life? For example, every day, we will have to decide how much we can spend for our foods, clothing, and paying the bills. Like in our textbook said that â€Å"We could not get everything we want therefore we are naming the Scarcity.† In this essay, we will discuss about the U.S. Economy for the years between 2006 and now in terms of macroeconomic measures discussed in the course GDP, unemployment, and inflation rates. First, GDP is the dollar value of all goods and services produced by a given country during a certain period (Graham, 2017). GDP includes income and domestic expenditures. GDP income includes wages and salaries, corporate profits, interest collected by lenders, and†¦show more content†¦The BEA previews that each year, GDP data is changing monthly during the year as the following on the graph: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Graph The second part we will talk about the inflation. Inflation is the rising price of goods and services over time. It s an economics term that means you must spend more to fill your gas tank, buy a gallon of milk, or get a haircut. That increases your cost of living (Amadeo, 2016). Inflation make our money value reduced if we compared in the past Dollar’s value higher than now. For example, before people can buy a gallon of gas 94 ¢ but now a gallon of gas over $2.00. Inflation rate also can increase or decrease of prices during a month or a year thus no one cannot be guaranteed. That’s why President Reagan said, â€Å"Inflation is as violent as a mugger, as frightening as an armed robber, and as deadly as a hit man.(Amadeo, 2016). Furthermore, hyperinflation causes when the inflation rate is more than 50% if it happens like that it will cause the recession or stagflation. The primary cause of inflation is when the government prints too much money thus government must not print too much money to make the money valuable down. Low inflation keeps a company’s costs down, and increases profits so low inflation is better for the market than high inflation (Graham, 2017). Further, as the prices rise, our money have lessShow MoreRelated Milton Freedman Essay917 Words   |  4 Pageson this planet, mankind has experimented with innumerable methods of trade and economics. Many believe that human restrictions on trade and a person’s desire for objects can create a utopian way of economic life. The following will examine two articles: The Market Didn’t Do It and A Good Conversation and the Marketplace. The goal of the following is to determine whether each is true and why based not only on the econom ic system of the world today, but also upon reason. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;SomeRead MoreEssay on The Industrial Revolution1326 Words   |  6 PagesProject From the beginning of the Industrial Revolution to the present day, the structure and culture of the American workplace have been affected by many forces, among them capitalism, technology, globalization, and issues of equality. Describe these forces in detail and analyze their impact on the structure and culture workplace. Capitalism Capitalism is an economic system that is based on the private ownership of capital or the means of production and the creation of goods and services forRead MoreCritical Analysis : Why Education Is Not An Economic Panacea1145 Words   |  5 PagesCritical Analysis: â€Å"Why Education Is Not an Economic Panacea† â€Å"The advice we would offer every halfway intelligent young person with a pulse—go to college—is not, I argue, counsel we can offer a whole generation of young people† (Marsh p.6). John Marsh explores in his article â€Å"Why Education Is Not an Economic Panacea† the correlation between income inequality and lack of higher education. In doing so he finds that education alone may not be a cure all for the problems faced by many low incomeRead MoreMark Cuban, billionaire owner of the Dallas Mavericks, wrote, â€Å"I have NEVER met a motivated person1100 Words   |  5 PagesMark Cuban, billionaire owner of the Dallas Mavericks, wrote, â€Å"I have NEVER met a motivated person who has said they would not chase their goals because of tax rates.† (Cuban) Warren Buffet has pledged to give away 99 percent of his wealth. Bill Gates now dedicates his life and wealth to philanthropy. On the other hand, of course, it is not hard to find a rich perso n that feels victimized by the tax code. When President Obama proposed a tax increase on private equity firms, billionaire Steve SchwarzmanRead MoreThe Illusion Of The Epoch : Neoclassical Economics As A Case Study1740 Words   |  7 Pages Henry titled The Illusion of the Epoch: Neoclassical Economics as a Case Study. This essay written by John F. Henry is an examination of ideas put forward by Karl Marx as well as Friedrich Engel in The German Ideology and their correlation with the principles of neoclassical economics. This idea is referred to as the â€Å"Illusion of the epoch† and is described by Henry as being â€Å"A conceptual framework in which the ideas of the dominant economic class are the dominant ideas in a society and increasinglyRead MoreReasons Why The Crash Of Wall Street Happened1066 Words   |  5 PagesThis paper will talk about the various reasons why the crash of Wall Street happened; such as the credit boom, buying on margin, and irrational exuberan ce. Also, mismatch between production and consumption, and the weaknesses of the banking system. The many reasons why the Great Depression occurred but the main ones are from the uneven distribution of income, loss of export sales, and mistakes by the Federal Reserve. This paper will also give examples on how the economic problems in 1929 were similarRead MoreFrancois Quesnay : The Physiocratic System1066 Words   |  5 PagesAlexis Parker Miss Umpleby West. Civ. – Pd. 6 1 December 2015 Francois Quesnay Francois Quesnay was the founder of the economic system that eventually was called the physiocratic system. He was born on June 4, 1694 in Paris, France. His father was a country lawyer that didn t get payed very much money. Francois didn t receive any financial aid from his family to get an education. In result of no education, he didn t learn how to read until he was twelve years old. However, he was able toRead MoreKey Elements in Sinclair Lewis, Babbitt Essay1078 Words   |  5 Pagesexplain his full effect and purpose for writing his novel. Babbitt is a satirist look, at not only one man, but an entire society as well. He exposes the hypocrisy and mechanization of American society in the 1920’s. In the story Lewis focuses on his main character George Babbitt, the protagonist throughout much of the book, who is a business with lofty aims and a desire to climb the ladder of the social class. To fully achieve his opinions and beliefs, Lewis used literary effects of iro ny and themeRead MoreHow Could War Stimulate The Economy?1235 Words   |  5 Pagestechnology. This might give a multiplier effect which then gush on to other businesses. By looking into the state of the economy at each and every major conflict since world war II, it is prudent that the positive effect of a rise in military spending were overshadowed by longer term unintentional negative macroeconomic cost. As the stimulatory effect of military expenditure is evidently associated with boost in the growth of the economy, unpleasant effects turn up either immediately or later on,Read MoreThe Effects Of Socioeconomics On Children s Children1743 Words   |  7 Pagesclothes and his free and reduced lunch status. He is constantly under pressure from peers to have the newest and niftiest gadgets; nevertheless, his mother cannot afford to provide food and permanent housing, much less, these extra luxuries. Therefore, he has to comprise with what his mother can afford. She tries to provi de for her children and wants to offer them the world. Nonetheless, due to her economic situation, she cannot provide her for children adequately; they are forced to ask for aid from

Foreign Currency Management Pdf Free Essays

Foreign Currency Management Exchange Rate This is the rate at which the currency of one country would change hands with currency of another country. E. g. We will write a custom essay sample on Foreign Currency Management Pdf or any similar topic only for you Order Now $1 = SLR 130 Types of Exchange Rate 1. Floating Rate This rate depends on a levels of the international trade of a country and it does not interfere with the government of that country. 2. Fixed Rate This is the rate that the government of the country would set its own currency rate and it is not depending on the market rate. 3. Dirty Float This is the rate that mixed between floating rate and fixed rate system. This is where the government would allow exchange rate to float between a particular two limits. If it goes outside either of the limit, then the government would take further action. Forex Dealings 1. Bid Price The price at which the currency is bought by the dealer. 2. Offer Price The price at which the currency is sold by the dealer. When regarding the forex dealings, Offer Price Bid Price Example 01: David is a UK businessman. He needs $ 400,000 to buy US equipment. Identify the amount of ? equired to buy the Dollars? ($/? 1. 75 – 1. 77) Answer: The amount of ? required = $ 400,000 $/? 1. 75 = ? 228571. 43 Example 02: James is a US businessman. He has just received a payment of ? 150,000 from his main customer in UK. Identify the amount of $ received by James when ? 150,000 are given? (? /$ 0. 61 – 0. 63) Answer: The amount of $ received = ? 150,000 ? /$ 0. 63 = $ 238095. 24 Spot Rate and Forward Rate Spot Rate This is the rate which is applicable for the immediate delivery of currency as at now. Forward Rate This is a rate that set for the future transaction for a fixed amount of currency. The transaction would take place on the future date at this agreed rate by disregarding the market rate. Discounts Premiums Discounts If the forward rate which is quoted cheaper, then it is set to be quoted at a discount. E. g. $/? current spot is 1. 8500-1. 8800 and the one month forward rate at 0. 0008-0. 0012 at a discount. When quoted at a discount, Answer: 1. 8500-1. 8800 their should be more Dollars + 0. 0008-0. 0012 being received at a given Pound. = 1. 508-1. 8812 So the discount factor have to be added to the spot rate. Premiums If the forward rate which is quoted more expensively, then it is set to be quoted at a premium. E. g. $/? current spot is 1. 9000-1. 9300 and the one month forward rate at 0. 0010-0. 0007 at a premium. When quoted at a premium, Answer: their should be less Dollars being 1. 9000-1. 9300 received at a given Pound because – 0. 0010-0. 0007 of the expe nsiveness of Dollars. So = 1. 8990-1. 9293 the premium factor have to be deducted from the spot rate. Foreign Exchange Rate Risks . Transaction Risk This is the risk that adverse exchange rate movement occurring in the cause of normal international trading transaction. This arises when the prices of imports or exports are fixed in foreign currency terms and there is a movement in the exchange rate between the date when the price is agreed and when the cash is paid or received. 2. Translation Risk This is the risk that the organization will made exchange losses when the accounting results of its foreign branches or subsidiaries translated into the local currency. . Economic Risk This is the risk that suppose to a effect of exchange rate movements on the international competitiveness of the company. 4. Direct Indirect Currency Quotes Direct Quote: This means the exchange rate is mentioned in terms of the amount of domestic currency which needs to be given in returns for one unit of f oreign currency. E. g. SLR 130 for $1 Indirect Quote: This means the amount of foreign currency units that needs to be given to obtain one unit of domestic currency. E. g. $ 1/130 for SLR 1 Example 01 ABC Ltd is a US company, buying goods from Sri Lanka which cost SLR 200,000. These goods are resold in the US for $2000 at the time of the import purchased. The current spot rate is $1 = SLR 126-130. Calculate the expected profit of the resale in terms of US Dollars using both direct indirect quote methods. Answer: 1. ) Under Direct Quote Method $/SLR = 1/126 – 1/130 = 0. 00794 – 0. 00769 Sales = $2000 (-)Purchase Cost=SLR200,000*$/SLR0. 00794 =($1588) Expected Profit = $412 2. ) Under Indirect Quote Method Sales (-)Purchase Cost=SLR200,000/SLR126/$ Expected Profit = $2000 =($1587) = $413 Managing the Exchange Rate Risk 1. Invoicing in domestic currency Since the exporter does not have to do any currency transaction in this method, the risk of currency conversion is transferred to the importer or vice versa. 2. Money Market Hedging Because of the close relationship between forward exchange rate and the interest rate in two currencies, it is possible to calculate a forward rate by using the spot exchange rate and money market lending or borrowing which is called as a money market hedge. Feature article about  Production Management 3.Entering into Forward Exchange Rate Contracts A person can enter into an agreement with a bank to purchase the foreign currency on the fixed date at a fixed rate. 4. Matching receipts payments Under this method a company can set off its payments against its receipts in that particular currency. 5. Options These are similar to forward trade agreements, but the consumer can choose between the bank’s rate and the market rate. Example 01 A Sri Lankan company has to settle $800,000 after three months time. The current spot rate is $1 = SLR 126-130. The foreign currency depositing interest rate is 12%per annum and the borrowing rate in Sri Lanka is 8% per annum. The agreed exchange rate with the bank is $1 = SLR128. The company has identified to overcome the exchange rate under Money Market Hedging Forward Exchange Rate Contract methods. Identify the cheapest method to overcome the exchange rate risk. Answer: 1. ) Using Money Market Hedging Method FV = PV* (1+r)n PV = $800,000* (1+ 0. 03)-1 PV = $776,699 r = 0. 12*3/12 r = 0. 03 n=1 Purchase Cost(SLR) = $776,699*SLR130/$1 = SLR 100,970,870 Interest Cost(SLR) = SLR 100,970,870*0. 8*3/12 = SLR 2,019,417 Total Cost(SLR) = SLR(100,970,870+2,019,417) = SLR 102,990,287 2. ) Using Forward Exchange Rate Contract Method Total Cost (SLR) = $ 800,000*SLR128/$1 = $102,400,000 The best method is forward Exchange Rate Contract Method, because it gives the lowest total cost when compare to Money Market Hedging Method. Reasons for Short Term Changes of Exchange Rate 1. Investment Flows If a co untry does more investment to outside countries, then there would be a higher demand for foreign currency. Therefore the domestic will depreciated or vice versa. 2. Trade Flows In a given time if a country has more imports and less exports, the domestic currency will depreciated, because of the higher demand for the foreign currency or vice versa. 3. Economic Prospectus If a country has good economic policies and is showing shines of economic growth, it could receive more investment and therefore the domestic currency would appreciated. Reasons for Long Term Changes of Exchange Rate 1. Purchasing Power Parity Theory This theory describes how the differences in inflation rate among two countries would lead to changes in the exchange rates. Future Rate(A/B)=Spot Rate(A/B) * (1+ Inflation Rate of A) (1 +Inflation Rate of B) 2. Interest Rate Parity Theory This theory links the future currency rates with differences in interest rate among two countries. Future Rate(A/B)=Spot Rate(A/B) * (1+ Interest Rate of A) (1 +Interest Rate of B) 3. Monetarist Theory This theory identifies the relationship between exchange rate and the government money supply to an economy of one country. E. g. When the government released more money to their economy, individual would have more money. So they would purchased more, the demand will increased through that result in higher prices high inflation. This would lead to a high level of depreciation to the currency. 4. Keynesian Approach This theory says that an exchange rate may not change in a balance and sometimes currency may continuously appreciate or depreciate without reverse. E. g. There is a high taste demand for imported product in one country while their exports are losing its export position in other countries. Therefore, without any appreciation of currency will continuously depreciate over a long time period in that country. How to cite Foreign Currency Management Pdf, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Flaws and Gaps of the Divorce Reform

The topic of the article: many faces of divorce Although traditionally, it is considered that marriage is a sacred union that is supposed to bring the wife and husband together â€Å"until death do them part,† in reality, choosing the right life partner is not that easy. As a result, many couples make a mistake, realizing that they are not quite compatible only when they have discovered the joy of marriage. This is not the only reason for a divorce, however; yet, no matter what the cause of a divorce is, it its purpose remains the same, i.e., preventing people from living an unhappy life.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Flaws and Gaps of the Divorce Reform specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, due to considerable drops in the number of population, the question concerning the legitimacy of banning divorces on the basis of religious and moral norms has been raised. In their article Framing Divorce Re form, Michelle Adams and Scott Coltrane research the problem of divorce, its effects and its perception in the modern society (Adams and Coltrane). In their research, Scott and Coltrane take a back seat to original research and indulge into analyzing the existing evidence concerning divorces, thus, making it clear that their study is based on theoretical assumptions concerning divorce rather than specific case studies. As the results of the research show, the existing laws on divorce van be considered neither as the glue that will keep marriage together, nor as the means to make them feel responsible about each other; in any case, as long as at least one of the spouses feel that they do not belong together, the couple will inevitably get separated, whether legally or not. Therefore, Scott and Coltrane stress, there is no point in reinforcing the propaganda of marriage as sacred bonds that are not to be broken. It must be admitted that in the contemporary society, with its new rules and moral principles, it is the trust between the partners that is appreciated most. Generalizing the issue: divorce and its effects Considering the given article as a whole, without getting into details, one must admit that Adams and Coltrane address not merely the issue of divorce as a phenomenon, but the problem of basic human freedoms being violated by society in the XXI century. Indeed, even though nowadays, every single human being has been provided with his or her inalienable right to make his or her own choices concerning private life and the choice of a partner, the attempts to control people’s private life have not ceased to exist yet. Therefore, it can be assumed that, along with the problem of divorce, the article raises a nonetheless significant question regarding people’s right for a private life. In addition, the authors of the article raise an important question regarding the reasons for society to shun the people who decide to divorce.Advertising Looking for essay on family law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Adams, Michelle and Scott Coltrane. â€Å"Framing Divorce Reform.† Shifting the Center: Understanding Contemporary Families. Ed. Susan Ferguson. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 2010. 499–511. Print. Marsiglo, William. â€Å"Overlooked Aspects of Stepfathering.† Shifting the Center: Understanding Contemporary Families. Ed. Susan Ferguson. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 2010. 556–571. Print. This essay on The Flaws and Gaps of the Divorce Reform was written and submitted by user Kimber Garcia to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Alexander Hamilton

A little, slim, pale-faced, consumptive man just concluded the very best speech of an hours length I ever heard. So said Congressman Abraham Lincoln about Alexander Hamilton Stephens.1 Stephens was born near Crawfordsville, Georgia on February 11, 1812. His mother died shortly after his birth and his father died when Stephens was only 14. Even in childhood he was amazingly bright and his brilliant mind was noticed by many mentors who paid for him to attend college. Stephens graduated at the top of his class from Franklin College and then went on to become a lawyer. Soon after he was admitted to the bar, he entered politics and began to construct an exceedingly prominent place in Alexander Hamilton Stephens was only five feet seven inches and never weighed more than one-hundred pounds- even in adulthood. As a young man he was given the nickname Little Aleck. He was pale, odd-bodied, had lustrous eyes, and was often described as cadaverous. From the time of his birth he was sickly and puny and was continuously wrapping himself in many layers of clothes and coats to keep warm. Late in his life he defined happiness as To be warm.2 Little Aleck was voted into the state legislator in 1836 and continued to remain there until 1841 when he declined re-election. But, in 1942 he was chosen State senator. Then, in 1943 he entered the U.S. House of Representatives and served there for sixteen years. In 1859 he returned to private life by his own choice. He had been a firm advocate of the compromise measures of 1850, and having participated in the settlement of the Kansas troubles, accepted the result as an end of sectional strife During the presidential campaign of 1860, Stephens was an advocate of the election of Stephen A. Douglas. The election of Mr. Lincoln shocked him and he thought it was a disturbance of the settlement a...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

All About Famous Memorials and Monuments of the U.S.

All About Famous Memorials and Monuments of the U.S. How do we remember important events? How can we best honor our dead? Should we pay tribute with realistic sculptures of our heroes? Or, will the monument be more meaningful and profound if we choose abstract forms? Sometimes the horror of events are too unreal to accurately represent. The design of a monument or memorial is often more symbolic than an accurate representation. Powerful Memorials in the U.S. National September 11 Memorial, New York, NYU.S.S. Arizona, Honolulu, HIVietnam Veterans Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, Washington Monument, Lincoln Memorial, and the National WWII Memorial in Washington, D.C.Gateway Arch, St. Louis, MOMount Rushmore National Memorial, SD Often the most powerful memorials - the monuments that stir strong emotion - are surrounded with controversy. The memorials and monuments listed here show various ways architects and designers have chosen to honor heroes, respond to tragedies, or commemorate important events. The memorial is there to provide an experience, Michael Arad has said. That experience, no doubt, involves memory. It is no surprise that the word memorial comes from the Latin word memoria, meaning memory. Architecture is memory. Memorials and monuments tell a story. To Honor and Remember People and Events How many buildings have you lived in? Where did you make your home when you were a child? when you first went to school? first fell in love? Our memories are inextricably tied with place. Events in our lives are permanently entangled with where they happened. Even when all the details may be fuzzy, the sense of place is forever with us. Architecture can be powerful markers of memories, so commanding that we sometimes consciously create memorials to honor and remember people and events. We may make a crude twig cross to commemorate a childhood pet. The carved stone on a family members burial site is built to stand for centuries. Bronze plaques remind a nation of bravery in face of adversity. Concrete tombs can visually present the scope of tragedies. How do we use architecture to express loss and hope for renewal? Does it make sense to spend millions of dollars building September 11 memorials? How we spend our money is an ongoing debate for families, nations, and institutions. The First Monuments and Memorials The earliest creations built by man for purposes other than shelter were spiritual in nature  - monuments to higher powers and memorials to honor the dead. One thinks of the prehistoric Stonehenge in Britain and the Grecian Parthenon built in 432 B.C. for the goddess Athena. The first memorials may have been the great pyramids in Egypt, the tombs of the great kings and pharaohs. Historically, human beings remember events related to war. As tribal conflicts became wars between nation states, the victors have built monuments to their victories. Monuments designed as arches can be traced back to the triumphal arches of Rome, such as the Arch of Titus (A.D. 82) and the  Arch of Constantine (A.D. 315). These Roman arches influenced 19th and 20th century war memorials around the world, including one of the most famous triumphal arches, the 1836 Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France. American War Memorials and Monuments The 1842 Bunker Hill Memorial near Boston, Massachusetts memorializes the American Revolution and the battle that took place on this sacred ground. In the United States, battlegrounds themselves are often considered the memorial. Throughout American history, memorial architecture has been built both locally and nationally. American Civil War: Monuments to Civil War heroes continue to divide the nation. Communities and groups who had erected monuments to Confederate war heroes of the 19th century found these memorials being removed in the 21st century  - remembering a culture of slavery and white supremacy became untolerable to a society struggling with inclusion.  Architecture can stir emotions and controversy. Less controversial is the 1866 Civil War Unknowns Monument, the first Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington Cemetery. It is a mass grave of over 2,000 soldiers, both Union and Confederate, whose bones and bodies were picked up after gruesome battles. The tomb is inscribed in stone: Beneath this stone repose the bones of two thousand one hundred and eleven unknown soldiers gathered after the war from the fields of Bull Run, and the route to the Rappahanock, their remains could not be identified. But their names and deaths are recorded in the archives of their country, and its grateful citizens honor them as of their noble army of martyrs. May they rest in peace! September. A. D. 1866. World War I: A National World War I Memorial called The Weight of Sacrifice officially marks the 100th anniversary of the end of WWI as it is dedicated on November 11, 2018. The memorial design competition was won by the Chicago-based architect Joseph Weishaar and New York City sculptor Sabin Howard. The memorial in Washington, DCs Pershing Park is the first national monument to this war event. The 1926 Liberty Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri had been considered a national memorial because of the number of soldiers who passed through the city on their way to war. The District of Columbia War Memorial in Washington, D.C. is considered a local monument. World War II:  Dedicated in 2004, the National World War II Memorial is located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Friedrich St.Florian, the Austrian-born architect, won the competition with his highly symbolic design. Down the road from St.Florians memorial is the iconic Iwo Jima Memorial. Near Arlington National Cemetery, the statue replicates a dynamic photograph depicting an important event in WWII Pacific War history. The 1954 statue, however, is really called the United States Marine Corps War Memorial and is dedicated to all Marines who have given their lives in defense of the United States since 1775. Similarly, the nearby 2006 United States Air Force Memorial  and the 1987 United States Navy Memorial honor those military branches. The horrors of WWII may best be depicted at the U.S.S. Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, a 1962 museum built over the hull of a sunken battleship. Keeping the ruins of war has been a popular way to impress memories of war on future generations. In Hiroshima, Japan the Atomic Bomb Dome, the remains of a building from the 1945 atomic bomb attack, is central to the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Korean War: The Korean War Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. was dedicated July 27, 1995, decades after the 1953 armistice. Unlike other memorials, the Korean War Veterans Memorial honors the nearly six million Americans who served during the three-year conflict and not just the men and women who gave their lives. Vietnam War: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall - the controversial design by architect Maya Lin - was dedicated in 1982 and remains one of the most visited sites in Washington, D.C. One of its most emotional appeals is the reflective nature of the engraved stone, where a viewers image can literally be reflected while reflecting on the names of the dead and missing. A bronze statue of three soldiers was added in 1964 and the  Vietnam Womens Memorial statue was added in 1993. Terrorism: A new type of war for the United States is undeclared, yet the horror of terrorism is everpresent. Michael Arads vision for a National September 11 Memorial in New York City reflects the absence of what once existed - both buildings and people are to be remembered. In Shanksville, Pennsylvania, a 90-foot wind chime called the Tower of Voices houses 40 tonal tubes that sing together as the voices of the 40 passengers and crew of United Flight 93. September 11 memorials often use symbolism to honor place and people. The Tower of Voices in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Jeff Swensen/Getty Images (cropped) Tomb of the Unknown Soldier The 1921 Tomb of the Unknowns, or the Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers, at Arlington National Cemetery is a simple white marble sarcophagus (coffin) that holds powerful symbolic meaning. Like the walls of the 1922 Lincoln Memorial, the Tomb of the Unknowns is constructed with bright white marble from the Yule Quarry in Colorado. Neoclassical pilasters, wreaths representing the major battles of World War I, and Grecian figures symbolizing Peace, Victory, and Valor decorate the marble panels. One panel is inscribed: HERE RESTS IN HONORED GLORY AN AMERICAN SOLDIER KNOWN BUT TO GOD. Although the Tomb of the Unknowns holds the remains of only a few individuals, the site honors the many unidentified men and women who gave their lives in armed conflict. The Tomb of the Unknowns also underscores Americas commitment to account for all service members who are missing - an idea that gained prominence after the Civil War. Both the Tomb of the Unknowns and the earlier Civil War Unknowns Monument have been the focus of remembrance since the first Decoration Day, now called Memorial Day, when spring flowers are used to decorate the graves of fallen soldiers. Holocaust Memorials Millions of people were killed between 1933 and 1945 in what is known as the Holocaust or Shoah. Remembering the horror of the slaughter is an attempt to never allow its repeat. Two of the best-known memorials are museums by two well-known architects. The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin, Germany, was designed by Peter Eisenman and the Yad Vashem Holocaust History Museum in Jerusalem is by Moshe Safdie. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. opened inn 1993 as a living memorial to the Holocaust. In Europe, artist Gunter Demnig has created Stolpersteine or stumbling stones to memorialize the last known addresss of victims. Architect Daniel Libeskind has created a Jewish Museum in Berlin, Germany and the Ohio Holocaust and Liberators Memorial in Columbus, Ohio. For some Holocaust survivors, remembering the horrors has been neither easy nor desireable. The history of the Holocaust Memorial in Miami Beach, Florida has its own story of objection and disapproval - yet the resulting sculpture garden is profound and moving. Monuments and Memorials to Leaders, Groups, and Movements Until the 21st century, United States Presidents have been revered. One thinks of the great heads carved in stone at the Mount Rushmore National Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota. The Jefferson Memorial, Washington Monument, and Lincoln Memorial are three of the most well-known architecture destinations created for the public in all of Washington, D.C. In 1997, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial was added to the presidential mix in the nations capital. The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial by Pritzker Laureate Philip Johnson is located in Dallas, Texas - the site of the presidential assassination. Consensus is never unanimous for which U.S. Presidents deserve to be remembered. Agreement is even less harmonious for other leaders, groups, and movements. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial in Washington, D.C. is a case in point - bickering before and after it was dedicated in 2011. The Civil Right Memorial in Montgomery, Alabama, designed by Maya Lin, was dedicated in 1989 to far less controversy. National memorials and monuments to the plight of disenfranchised Americans  - Native Americans, Black Americans, and LGBT Americans, for example - are few or nonexistant, except for museums. The design of monuments is often modelled after historic architecture of the past. For example, the iconic 1892 Washington Square Arch in New York Citys Greenwich Village looks strikingly similar to the triumphal stone arches built since the Roman Arch of Titus from the year 82. Likewise, the 1910 Pilgrim Monument in Provincetown, Massachusetts was designed specifically after the 14th century Torre Del Mangia in Siena, Italy. Design is not materials, however, as the tower rising on Cape Cod is not Italian brick but made of granite from Maine  - the tallest all-granite structure in the U.S. Monuments to Ideals The St. Louis Gateway Arch is an homage to Westward Expansion. The Statue of Liberty National Monument is a monument to the ideals of freedom and opportunity. Nearby on Roosevelt Island in New York City, the Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, designed by modernist architect Louis I. Kahn,  is a memorial not only to FDR, but also to his vision of basic human rights. Sometimes we build memorials to remind us of whats important. Why We Need Monuments and Memorials Monuments and memorials ultimately tell stories, the tales important to their human creators. Architecture, including memorials and monuments, is an expressive tool. Design can show prosperity, whimsy, solemnity, or a combination of qualities. But architecture doesnt need to be big and expensive to ensure memory. When we build things, sometimes the purpose is an obvious marker of a life or an event to be remembered. But anything we build can kindle the flames of memory. In the words of John Ruskin (1819-1900): Therefore, when we build, let us think that we build for ever. Let it not be for present delight, nor for present use alone; let it be such work as our descendants will thank us for, and let us think, as we lay stone on stone, that a time is to come when those stones will be held sacred because our hands have touched them, and that men will say as they look upon the labor and wrought substance of them, See! this our fathers did for us. - Section X, The Lamp of Memory, The Seven Lamps of Architecture, 1849 Sources Eva Hagberg, How Architecture Commemorates Tragedy, Metropolis, June 28, 2005, metropolismag.com/uncategorized/how-architecture-commemorates-tragedy/History of the Marine Corps War Memorial, National Park Service, https://www.nps.gov/gwmp/learn/historyculture/usmcwarmemorial.htm David A. Graham. The Stubborn Persistence of Confederate Monuments, The Atlantic, April 26, 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/04/the-stubborn-persistence-of-confederate-monuments/479751/Civil War Unknown Monument, Arlington National Cemetery, arlingtoncemetery.mil/Explore/Monuments-and-Memorials/Civil-War-Unknowns History of the Holocaust Memorial, Holocaust Memorial Miami Beach, https://holocaustmemorialmiamibeach.org/about/history/Quick Facts, Pilgrim Monument, https://www.pilgrim-monument.org/pilgrim-monument/Additional Photo Credits: USS Arizona National Memorial, MPI/Getty Images (cropped); Atomic Bomb Dome, Craig Pershouse/Getty Images; Pilgrim Monument, haveseen/Getty Images; Torr e del Mangia, Nadya85/Getty Images (cropped)

Friday, February 14, 2020

Modern Slavery and 4-1-9 Fraud Schemes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Modern Slavery and 4-1-9 Fraud Schemes - Essay Example Some of these are a) slaves are available at cheap rate which ranges from USD 80 to USD 5000 or even more based on the quality of slaves b) bonded labors c) Forced prostitution d) Forced Marriage / Child Marriage e) Forced beggary (Symons, 2012). The major victims of slave trade are poor and downtrodden people of the society. Most of them are from destabilized states at the hands of war, natural calamities, poverty and those who suffered at the hands of civil unrest / civil wars. Q: Why is the scam letters referred to as â€Å"4-1-9† schemes?   The scam is referred to as â€Å"4-1-9† due to application of given modalities by the scammers. In addition, the article that deals with fraud as per Nigerian law and criminal code is numbered as 419 due to which, the Nigerian frauds are termed as 4-1-9 schemes (Dillon, 2008): a) Sending letters / faxes or emails to the victims by the impersonators posing themselves as representatives of foreign government agencies. b) Fake age ncies offered victims millions of dollars to deposit in their personal accounts by way of â€Å"over invoice contracts†. c) Encouraged victims to travel to the destined places to complete the transactions. d) Scammers asked victims to provide blank letterhead of their company that enumerates phone numbers, fax numbers and email addresses to correspond. e) Scammers send number of fake official documents which look as good as authenticated. By way of this technique, the company convinced victims to pay off the upfront fees/charges in advance. f) The documents that relates to â€Å"419† schemes include: a) goods / services b) real estate business c) availability of crude oil at a dam cheap rate besides facilitation of conversion of currency. Q: What is the likely profile of a typical 4-1-9 victim?   The successful fraudulent cases so far unearthed relate to upfront fees / charges that were transferred to scammers. The modus operandi is that the applicant company / indiv idual receives letter by mail from a Nigerian citizen claiming himself a top notch of the Nigerian Government. In the mentioned letter, the so-called Nigerian high official informs the company that in order to have a contract, the individual or the company has to deposit upfront fees/charges that ranges from USD 10 to 60 million as a precondition of the Nigerian Government. The source of information about the victims is a) Trade bodies b) Commercial Attaches c) Trade directories etc. They focus on a number of traders / companies of the targeted countries and send them emails, faxes and emails impersonating themselves as the high ups of the concerned ministry of the Nigerian Government in general and the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation in specific to strike a deal (â€Å"What is the ‘419’ Scam?†). The scammers invited victims to travel to the said country to materialize the transaction without going through the cumbersome procedure of seeking visa. By brib ing the airport officials, they ensure entrance of victims in their country. Since the entrance in the mentioned country without having a valid visa is a serious offence, therefore the scammers use it against the victim to cow him down for the release of proposed funds. Apart from said tactic they do not mind in applying other harmful tactics if need arises.